5. Create a Plone Theme python package

Creating a theme product with the Diazo inline editor is an easy way to start and to test, but it is not a solid long term solution and you are also limited in what you can do that way.

Even if plone.app.theming allows importing and exporting of a Diazo theme as a ZIP archive, it might be preferable to manage your theme as an actual Plone product.

One of the most obvious reasons is that it will allow you to override Plone elements that are not accessible via pure Diazo features (such as overloading content view templates, viewlets, configuration settings, etc.).

Preparing your setup

Install npm

If you don’t have already installed npm on your system please do it. Npm comes with nodejs, we just need to install npm. On Debian/Ubuntu for example you can do this with apt:

$ sudo apt install -y npm

If you need a newer version of ǹpm just update your version with npm it self:

Installing Grunt

We also need to install grunt-cli globaly. If you already have it, you can skip this step.

$ npm install -g grunt-cli

Note

If you get an error with node on Debian/Ubuntu, please check if you already have /usr/bin/node if not create a symlink like: ln -s /usr/bin/nodejs /usr/bin/node.

virtualenv and mr.bob

First let’s create a Python virtualenv:

$ virtualenv mrbobvenv

Then we enable the virtualenv:

$ source mrbobvenv/bin/activate
(mrbobvenv):~$

Create a product to handle your Diazo theme

To create a Plone 5 theme skeleton, you will use mr.bob’s templates for Plone.

Install mr.bob and bobtemplates.plone

To install mr.bob, you can use pip:

(mrbobvenv):$ pip install mr.bob

and to install the required bobtemplates for Plone, do:

(mrbobvenv):$ pip install git+https://github.com/plone/bobtemplates.plone.git@1.0.5_boston --upgrade

after bobtemplates.plone >= 1.0.5 is released do:

(mrbobvenv):$ pip install bobtemplates.plone

Create a Plone 5 theme product skeleton with mrbob:

(mrbobvenv):$ mrbob -O plonetheme.tango bobtemplates:plone_addon

It will ask you some question:

--> What kind of package would you like to create? Choose between 'Basic', 'Dexterity', and 'Theme'. [Basic]: Theme

Here, choose “Theme” and fill out the rest of the questions however you like:

--> Theme name [Tango]: tango.de

--> Author's name [MrTango]:

--> Author's email [md@derico.de]:

--> Author's github username: MrTango

--> Package description [An add-on for Plone]: Plone theme tango

--> Plone version [5.0.5]:

Generated file structure at /home/maik/develop/plone/plonetheme.tango

Now you have a new Python package in your current folder:

(mrbobvenv):~/develop/plone/plonetheme.tango
$ ls
bootstrap-buildout.py   buildout.cfg  CONTRIBUTORS.rst  MANIFEST.in  setup.py  travis.cfg
bootstrap-buildout.pyc  CHANGES.rst   docs              README.rst   src

Deactivate mrbob virtualenv:

(mrbobvenv):~/develop/plone/plonetheme.tango$ deactivate

Install Buildout and boostrap your development environment

You can install Buildout globally or on a virtualenv. To install zc.buildout globally:

$ sudo pip install zc.buildout
$ buildout bootstrap

Now you have everything in place and you can run buildout:

$ ./bin/buildout

This will create the whole development environment for your package:

$ ls bin
addchangelogentry                code-analysis-jscs      grunt-task-compile  pildriver.py  ride
buildout                         code-analysis-jshint    i18ndude            pilfile.py    robot
bumpversion                      code-analysis-zptlint   instance            pilfont.py    robot-debug
check-manifest                   createfontdatachunk.py  lasttagdiff         pilprint.py   robot-server
code-analysis                    develop                 lasttaglog          player.py     test
code-analysis-check-manifest     enhancer.py             libdoc              postrelease   thresholder.py
code-analysis-clean-lines        explode.py              longtest            prerelease    viewer.py
code-analysis-csslint            flake8                  npm-install         pybabel
code-analysis-find-untranslated  fullrelease             painter.py          pybot
code-analysis-flake8             gifmaker.py             pilconvert.py       release

Inspect your package source

Your package source code is in the src folder:

$ tree src/plonetheme/tango/
├── browser
│   ├── configure.zcml
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── overrides
│   └── static
├── configure.zcml
├── __init__.py
├── interfaces.py
├── locales
│   ├── plonetheme.tango.pot
│   └── update.sh
├── profiles
│   ├── default
│   │   ├── browserlayer.xml
│   │   ├── metadata.xml
│   │   ├── registry.xml
│   │   └── theme.xml
│   └── uninstall
│       ├── browserlayer.xml
│       └── theme.xml
├── setuphandlers.py
├── testing.py
├── tests
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── robot
│   │   └── test_example.robot
│   ├── test_robot.py
│   └── test_setup.py
└── theme
    ├── backend.xml
    ├── barceloneta
    │   └── less
    │       ├── accessibility.plone.less
    │       ├── alerts.plone.less
    │       ├── barceloneta-compiled.css
    │       ├── barceloneta-compiled.css.map
    │       ├── barceloneta.css
    │       ├── barceloneta.plone.export.less
    │       ├── barceloneta.plone.less
    │       ├── barceloneta.plone.local.less
    │       ├── behaviors.plone.less
    │       ├── breadcrumbs.plone.less
    │       ├── buttons.plone.less
    │       ├── code.plone.less
    │       ├── contents.plone.less
    │       ├── controlpanels.plone.less
    │       ├── deco.plone.less
    │       ├── discussion.plone.less
    │       ├── dropzone.plone.less
    │       ├── event.plone.less
    │       ├── fonts.plone.less
    │       ├── footer.plone.less
    │       ├── forms.plone.less
    │       ├── formtabbing.plone.less
    │       ├── grid.plone.less
    │       ├── header.plone.less
    │       ├── image.plone.less
    │       ├── loginform.plone.less
    │       ├── main.plone.less
    │       ├── mixin.borderradius.plone.less
    │       ├── mixin.buttons.plone.less
    │       ├── mixin.clearfix.plone.less
    │       ├── mixin.forms.plone.less
    │       ├── mixin.gridframework.plone.less
    │       ├── mixin.grid.plone.less
    │       ├── mixin.images.plone.less
    │       ├── mixin.prefixes.plone.less
    │       ├── mixin.tabfocus.plone.less
    │       ├── modal.plone.less
    │       ├── normalize.plone.less
    │       ├── pagination.plone.less
    │       ├── pickadate.plone.less
    │       ├── plone-toolbarlogo.svg
    │       ├── portlets.plone.less
    │       ├── print.plone.less
    │       ├── scaffolding.plone.less
    │       ├── search.plone.less
    │       ├── sitemap.plone.less
    │       ├── sitenav.plone.less
    │       ├── sortable.plone.less
    │       ├── states.plone.less
    │       ├── tablesorter.plone.less
    │       ├── tables.plone.less
    │       ├── tags.plone.less
    │       ├── thumbs.plone.less
    │       ├── toc.plone.less
    │       ├── tooltip.plone.less
    │       ├── tree.plone.less
    │       ├── type.plone.less
    │       ├── variables.plone.less
    │       └── views.plone.less
    ├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-114x114-precomposed.png
    ├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-144x144-precomposed.png
    ├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-57x57-precomposed.png
    ├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-72x72-precomposed.png
    ├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon.png
    ├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-precomposed.png
    ├── barceloneta-favicon.ico
    ├── index.html
    ├── less
    │   ├── custom.less
    │   ├── plone.toolbar.vars.less
    │   ├── roboto
    │   │   ├── LICENSE.txt
    │   │   ├── RobotoCondensed-Light.eot
    │   │   ├── RobotoCondensed-LightItalic.eot
    │   │   ├── RobotoCondensed-LightItalic.svg
    │   │   ├── RobotoCondensed-LightItalic.ttf
    │   │   ├── RobotoCondensed-LightItalic.woff
    │   │   ├── RobotoCondensed-Light.svg
    │   │   ├── RobotoCondensed-Light.ttf
    │   │   ├── RobotoCondensed-Light.woff
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Light.eot
    │   │   ├── Roboto-LightItalic.eot
    │   │   ├── Roboto-LightItalic.svg
    │   │   ├── Roboto-LightItalic.ttf
    │   │   ├── Roboto-LightItalic.woff
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Light.svg
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Light.ttf
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Light.woff
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Medium.eot
    │   │   ├── Roboto-MediumItalic.eot
    │   │   ├── Roboto-MediumItalic.svg
    │   │   ├── Roboto-MediumItalic.ttf
    │   │   ├── Roboto-MediumItalic.woff
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Medium.svg
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Medium.ttf
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Medium.woff
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Regular.eot
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Regular.svg
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Regular.ttf
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Regular.woff
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Thin.eot
    │   │   ├── Roboto-ThinItalic.eot
    │   │   ├── Roboto-ThinItalic.svg
    │   │   ├── Roboto-ThinItalic.ttf
    │   │   ├── Roboto-ThinItalic.woff
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Thin.svg
    │   │   ├── Roboto-Thin.ttf
    │   │   └── Roboto-Thin.woff
    │   ├── theme.less
    │   └── theme.local.less
    ├── manifest.cfg
    ├── package.json
    ├── preview.png
    ├── rules.xml
    ├── template-overrides
    ├── tinymce-templates
    │   └── image-grid-2x2.html
    └── views
        └── slider-images.pt.example

As you can see, the package already contains a Diazo theme including Barceloneta resources:

$ tree -L 2 src/plonetheme/tango/theme/
src/plonetheme/tango/theme/
├── backend.xml
├── barceloneta
│   └── less
├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-114x114-precomposed.png
├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-144x144-precomposed.png
├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-57x57-precomposed.png
├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-72x72-precomposed.png
├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon.png
├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-precomposed.png
├── barceloneta-favicon.ico
├── HOWTO_DEVELOP.rst
├── index.html
├── less
│   ├── custom.less
│   ├── plone.toolbar.vars.less
│   ├── roboto
│   ├── theme-compiled.css
│   ├── theme-compiled.css.map
│   ├── theme.less
│   └── theme.local.less
├── manifest.cfg
├── node_modules
│   └── bootstrap
├── package.json
├── preview.png
├── rules.xml
├── template-overrides
├── tinymce-templates
│   └── image-grid-2x2.html
└── views
    └── slider-images.pt.example

This theme basically provides you with a copy of the Plone 5 default theme (Barceloneta), and you can change everything you need to create your own theme. The Barceloneta resources are in the folder barceloneta. This is basically a copy of the theme folder of plonetheme.barceloneta. We removed some unneeded files there, because we only need the LESS part for partially including it in our theme.less. We also have the icons and the backend.xml from Barceloneta in our them folder.

In theme/less we have our CSS/LESS files. Our own CSS goes into custom.less. You can also add more LESS files and include them in theme.less, if you have a loot of custom CSS.

The theme.less is our main LESS file. Here we include all other files we need. It already has some includes of Barceloneta, Bootstrap and our custom.less at the bottom.

We also have a package.json, in which we can define external dependencies like Bootstrap or other CSS/JS packages we want to use in our theme, see Install external CSS and JavaScript with npm and use them in your theme.

Start Plone and install your theme product

To start the Plone instance, run:

$ ./bin/instance fg

The Plone instance will then run on http://localhost:8080. The default username and password is admin / admin. Add a Plone site Plone. Then activate/install your theme product on http://localhost:8080/Plone/prefs_install_products_form. The theme will be automatically enabled. If something is wrong with the theme, you can always go to http://localhost:8080/Plone/@@theming-controlpanel and disable it. This control panel will never be themed, so it works even if the theme might be broken.

Build your Diazo-based theme

You can start with the example files in the theme folder and just change the index.html and custom.less file to customize the default theme to your needs. As stated above it’s the Plone 5 default Barceloneta theme plus some custom files you can use to to override or write css/less.

Use your own static mockup

If you got a static mockup from your designer or from a website like http://startbootstrap.com (where the example theme came from), you can use this without customization and just apply the Diazo rules to it.

Another way is to change the static mockup a little bit is to use mostly the same CSS ids and classes. This way it is easier to reuse CSS/LESS from Barceloneta theme and Plone add-ons if needed.

Download and prepare a static theme

Let’s start with an untouched static theme, such as this bootstrap theme: http://startbootstrap.com/template-overviews/business-casual/. Just download it and extract it into the theme folder. Replace the index.html with the one in the downloaded theme:

$ tree -L 2 .
.
├── about.html
├── backend.xml
├── barceloneta
│   └── less
├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-114x114-precomposed.png
├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-144x144-precomposed.png
├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-57x57-precomposed.png
├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-72x72-precomposed.png
├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon.png
├── barceloneta-apple-touch-icon-precomposed.png
├── barceloneta-favicon.ico
├── blog.html
├── contact.html
├── css
│   ├── bootstrap.css
│   ├── bootstrap.min.css
│   └── business-casual.css
├── fonts
│   ├── glyphicons-halflings-regular.eot
│   ├── glyphicons-halflings-regular.svg
│   ├── glyphicons-halflings-regular.ttf
│   ├── glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff
│   └── glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff2
├── form-handler-nodb.php
├── form-handler.php
├── HOWTO_DEVELOP.rst
├── img
│   ├── bg.jpg
│   ├── intro-pic.jpg
│   ├── slide-1.jpg
│   ├── slide-2.jpg
│   └── slide-3.jpg
├── index.html
├── js
│   ├── bootstrap.js
│   ├── bootstrap.min.js
│   └── jquery.js
├── less
│   ├── custom.less
│   ├── plone.toolbar.vars.less
│   ├── roboto
│   ├── theme-compiled.css
│   ├── theme-compiled.css.map
│   ├── theme.less
│   └── theme.local.less
├── LICENSE
├── manifest.cfg
├── node_modules
│   └── bootstrap
├── package.json
├── preview.png
├── README.md
├── rules.xml
├── template-overrides
├── tinymce-templates
│   └── image-grid-2x2.html
└── views
    └── slider-images.pt.example

Preparing the template

To make the given index.html more useful, we customize it a little bit. Right before the second box which contains:

<div class="row">
    <div class="box">
        <div class="col-lg-12">
            <hr>
            <h2 class="intro-text text-center">Build a website
                <strong>worth visiting</strong>
            </h2>

Add this:

<div class="row">
  <div id="column1-container"></div>
  <div id="content-container">
    <!-- main content (box2 and box3) comes here -->
  </div>
  <div id="column2-container"></div>
</div>

And then move the main content (the box 2 and box 3 including the parent row div) into the content-container.

It should look like this:

<div class="row">
  <div id="column1-container"></div>

  <div id="content-container">
      <div class="row">
          <div class="box">
              <div class="col-lg-12">
                  <hr>
                  <h2 class="intro-text text-center">Build a website
                      <strong>worth visiting</strong>
                  </h2>
                  <hr>
                  <img class="img-responsive img-border img-left" src="img/intro-pic.jpg" alt="">
                  <hr class="visible-xs">
                  <p>The boxes used in this template are nested inbetween a normal Bootstrap row and the start of your column layout. The boxes will be full-width boxes, so if you want to make them smaller then you will need to customize.</p>
                  <p>A huge thanks to <a href="http://join.deathtothestockphoto.com/" target="_blank">Death to the Stock Photo</a> for allowing us to use the beautiful photos that make this template really come to life. When using this template, make sure your photos are decent. Also make sure that the file size on your photos is kept to a minumum to keep load times to a minimum.</p>
                  <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nunc placerat diam quis nisl vestibulum dignissim. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas.</p>
              </div>
          </div>
      </div>

      <div class="row">
          <div class="box">
              <div class="col-lg-12">
                  <hr>
                  <h2 class="intro-text text-center">Beautiful boxes
                      <strong>to showcase your content</strong>
                  </h2>
                  <hr>
                  <p>Use as many boxes as you like, and put anything you want in them! They are great for just about anything, the sky's the limit!</p>
                  <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nunc placerat diam quis nisl vestibulum dignissim. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas.</p>
              </div>
          </div>
      </div>
  </div>
  <div id="column2-container"></div>
</div>

Include theme CSS

We need to include the CSS from the theme into our theme.less file:

/* theme.less file that will be compiled */

// ### PLONE IMPORTS ###

@barceloneta_path: "barceloneta/less";

//*// Core variables and mixins
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/fonts.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/variables.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.prefixes.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.tabfocus.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.images.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.forms.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.borderradius.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.buttons.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.clearfix.plone.less";
//    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.gridframework.plone.less"; //grid Bootstrap
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.grid.plone.less"; //grid Bootstrap

@import "@{barceloneta_path}/normalize.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/print.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/code.plone.less";

//*// Core CSS
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/grid.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/scaffolding.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/type.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/tables.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/forms.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/buttons.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/states.plone.less";

//*// Components
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/breadcrumbs.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/pagination.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/formtabbing.plone.less"; //pattern
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/views.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/thumbs.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/alerts.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/portlets.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/controlpanels.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/tags.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/contents.plone.less";

//*// Patterns
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/accessibility.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/toc.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/dropzone.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/modal.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/pickadate.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/sortable.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/tablesorter.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/tooltip.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/tree.plone.less";

//*// Structure
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/header.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/sitenav.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/main.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/footer.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/loginform.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/sitemap.plone.less";

//*// Products
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/event.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/image.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/behaviors.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/discussion.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/search.plone.less";

// ### END OF PLONE IMPORTS ###



// ### UTILS ###

// import bootstrap files:
@bootstrap_path: "node_modules/bootstrap/less";

@import "@{bootstrap_path}/variables.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/mixins.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/utilities.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/grid.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/type.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/forms.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/navs.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/navbar.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/carousel.less";

// ### END OF UTILS ###

// include theme css as less
@import (less) "../css/business-casual.css";

// include our custom css/less
@import "custom.less";

Here we mainly add the include of the css the theme provides us in theme/css/business-casual.css after the END OF UTILS marker, but before the custom.less include. We include the CSS file here as a LESS file. This way we can extend parts of the CSS in our theme, like we will do with the .box below.

Note

Don’t forget to run grunt compile in your package root, after you changed the LESS files or use grunt watch to do this automatically after every change!

Using Diazo rules to map the theme with Plone content

Now that we have the static theme, we need to apply the Diazo rules in rules.xml to map the Plone content elements to the theme.

First let me explain what we mean when we talk about content and theme. Content is usually the dynamic generated content on the Plone site, and the theme is the static template site.

For example:

<replace css:theme="#headline" css:content="#firstHeading" />

This means that the element #headline in the theme should be replaced by the #firstHeading element from the generated Plone content.

To inspect the content side, you can open another Browser tab, but instead of http://localhost:8080/Plone, use http://127.0.0.1:8080/Plone. In this tab Diazo is disabled, allowing you to use your browser’s Inspector or Developer tools to view the DOM structure of default Plone. This ‘unthemed host name’ is managed in the Theming control panel > Advanced Settings, where more domains can be added.

For more details on how to use Diazo rules, look at http://docs.diazo.org/en/latest/ and http://docs.plone.org/external/plone.app.theming/docs/index.html.

We already have a fully functional rule set based on the Plone 5 default Theme:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<rules xmlns="http://namespaces.plone.org/diazo"
       xmlns:css="http://namespaces.plone.org/diazo/css"
       xmlns:xhtml="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
       xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
       xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XInclude">

  <theme href="index.html" />
  <notheme css:if-not-content="#visual-portal-wrapper" />

  <rules css:if-content="#portal-top">
    <!-- Attributes -->
    <copy attributes="*" css:theme="html" css:content="html" />
    <!-- Base tag -->
    <before css:theme="title" css:content="base" />
    <!-- Title -->
    <replace css:theme="title" css:content="title" />
    <!-- Pull in Plone Meta -->
    <after css:theme-children="head" css:content="head meta" />
    <!-- Don't use Plone icons, use the theme's -->
    <drop css:content="head link[rel='apple-touch-icon']" />
    <drop css:content="head link[rel='shortcut icon']" />
    <!-- drop the theme stylesheets -->
    <drop theme="/html/head/link[rel='stylesheet']" />
    <!-- CSS -->
    <after css:theme-children="head" css:content="head link" />
    <!-- Script -->
    <after css:theme-children="head" css:content="head script" />
  </rules>

  <!-- Copy over the id/class attributes on the body tag. This is important for per-section styling -->
  <copy attributes="*" css:content="body" css:theme="body" />

  <!-- move global nav -->
  <replace css:theme-children="#mainnavigation" css:content-children="#portal-mainnavigation" method="raw" />

  <!-- full-width breadcrumb -->
  <replace css:content="#viewlet-above-content" css:theme="#above-content" />

  <!-- Central column -->
  <replace css:theme="#content-container" method="raw">

    <xsl:variable name="central">
      <xsl:if test="//aside[@id='portal-column-one'] and //aside[@id='portal-column-two']">col-xs-12 col-sm-6</xsl:if>
      <xsl:if test="//aside[@id='portal-column-two'] and not(//aside[@id='portal-column-one'])">col-xs-12 col-sm-9</xsl:if>
      <xsl:if test="//aside[@id='portal-column-one'] and not(//aside[@id='portal-column-two'])">col-xs-12 col-sm-9</xsl:if>
      <xsl:if test="not(//aside[@id='portal-column-one']) and not(//aside[@id='portal-column-two'])">col-xs-12 col-sm-12</xsl:if>
    </xsl:variable>

    <div class="{$central}">
      <!-- <p class="pull-right visible-xs">
        <button type="button" class="btn btn-primary btn-xs" data-toggle="offcanvas">Toggle nav</button>
      </p> -->
      <div class="row">
        <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12">
          <xsl:apply-templates css:select="#content" />
        </div>
      </div>
      <footer class="row">
        <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12">
          <xsl:copy-of css:select="#viewlet-below-content" />
        </div>
      </footer>
    </div>
  </replace>

  <!-- Alert message -->
  <replace css:theme-children="#global_statusmessage" css:content-children="#global_statusmessage" />

  <!-- Left column -->
  <rules css:if-content="#portal-column-one">
    <replace css:theme="#column1-container">
        <div id="sidebar" class="col-xs-6 col-sm-3 sidebar-offcanvas">
          <aside id="portal-column-one">
              <xsl:copy-of css:select="#portal-column-one > *" />
          </aside>
        </div>
    </replace>
  </rules>

  <!-- Right column -->
  <rules css:if-content="#portal-column-two">
    <replace css:theme="#column2-container">
        <div id="sidebar" class="col-xs-6 col-sm-3 sidebar-offcanvas" role="complementary">
          <aside id="portal-column-two">
              <xsl:copy-of css:select="#portal-column-two > *" />
          </aside>
        </div>
    </replace>
  </rules>

  <!-- Content header -->
  <replace css:theme="#portal-top" css:content-children="#portal-top" />

  <!-- Footer -->
  <replace css:theme-children="#portal-footer" css:content-children="#portal-footer-wrapper" />

  <!-- toolbar -->
  <replace css:theme="#portal-toolbar" css:content-children="#edit-bar" css:if-not-content=".ajax_load" css:if-content=".userrole-authenticated" />
  <replace css:theme="#anonymous-actions" css:content-children="#portal-personaltools-wrapper" css:if-not-content=".ajax_load" css:if-content=".userrole-anonymous" />

</rules>

As you probably noticed, the theme does not look like it should and is missing some important parts like the toolbar. That is because we are using an HTML template, which has different HTML structure, than the one Plone’s default theme is using.

We can either change our theme’s template to use the same structure and naming for classes and ids, or we can change our rule set to work with the theme template like it is. We will mainly go the second way and customize our rule set to work with the provided theme template. In fact if you use a better theme template then this, where more useful CSS classes and ids used and the grid is defined in CSS/LESS and not in the HTML markup it self, it is a lot easier to work with touching the theme. But we use this popular example theme and therefor need also to make changes to the template it self a bit.

Customize the rule set

The most important part of Plone is the toolbar. So let’s first make sure we have it in our theme template.

Plone Toolbar

We already have the needed Diazo rules in our rules.xml:

<!-- toolbar -->
<replace css:theme="#portal-toolbar" css:content-children="#edit-bar" css:if-not-content=".ajax_load" css:if-content=".userrole-authenticated" />

The only thing we need is a placeholder in our theme template:

<section id="portal-toolbar">
</section>

You can put it right after the opening body tag in your index.html

Top-navigation

Replace the placeholder with the real Plone top-navigation links. To do this we replace this rule from Barceloneta:

<!-- move global nav -->
<replace css:theme-children="#mainnavigation" css:content-children="#portal-mainnavigation" method="raw" />

with our new rule:

<!-- replace theme navbar-nav with Plone plone-navbar-nav -->
<replace
  css:theme-children=".navbar-nav"
  css:content-children=".plone-navbar-nav" />

Here we take the list of links from Plone and replace the placeholder links in the theme with it. The Barceloneta rule copies the whole navigation container into the theme, but only need to copy the links over.

Slider only on Front-page

We want the slider in the template only on the front page, and we don’t want it when we are editing the front page. To make this easier, we add #front-page-slider to the outer row div-tag which contains the slider:

<div class="row" id="front-page-slider">
    <div class="box">
        <div class="col-lg-12 text-center">
            <div id="carousel-example-generic" class="carousel slide">
                <!-- Indicators -->
                <ol class="carousel-indicators hidden-xs">
                    <li data-target="#carousel-example-generic" data-slide-to="0" class="active"></li>
                    <li data-target="#carousel-example-generic" data-slide-to="1"></li>
                    <li data-target="#carousel-example-generic" data-slide-to="2"></li>
                </ol>

                <!-- Wrapper for slides -->
                <div class="carousel-inner">
                    <div class="item active">
                        <img class="img-responsive img-full" src="img/slide-1.jpg" alt="">
                    </div>
                    <div class="item">
                        <img class="img-responsive img-full" src="img/slide-2.jpg" alt="">
                    </div>
                    <div class="item">
                        <img class="img-responsive img-full" src="img/slide-3.jpg" alt="">
                    </div>
                </div>

                <!-- Controls -->
                <a class="left carousel-control" href="#carousel-example-generic" data-slide="prev">
                    <span class="icon-prev"></span>
                </a>
                <a class="right carousel-control" href="#carousel-example-generic" data-slide="next">
                    <span class="icon-next"></span>
                </a>
            </div>
            <h2 class="brand-before">
                    <small>Welcome to</small>
            </h2>
            <h1 class="brand-name">Business Casual</h1>
            <hr class="tagline-divider">
            <h2>
                <small>By
                    <strong>Start Bootstrap</strong>
                </small>
            </h2>
          </div>
    </div>
</div>

Now we can drop it if we are not on the front page and also in some other situations:

<drop
  css:theme="#front-page-slider"
  css:if-not-content=".section-front-page.template-document_view" />

Currently the slider is still static, but we will change that later in Create dynamic slider content in Plone.

Title and Description

Let’s delete the tag with the id brand-before from the theme template.

<drop
  css:theme=".brand-before"
  css:if-content=".section-front-page" />

Now let’s put the necessary rules for the Title and Description in our rules.xml:

<replace
  css:theme-children=".brand-name"
  css:content-children=".documentFirstHeading"
  method="raw" />
<drop
  css:content=".documentFirstHeading"
  css:if-content=".section-front-page" />

<replace
  css:theme="#front-page-slider h2"
  css:content=".documentDescription"
  method="raw" />
<drop
  css:content=".documentDescription"
  css:if-content=".section-front-page" />

If we have the slider on the front page, the Plone title will be placed inside the tag with the class brand-name. If we don’t have the slider, we see the title inside the tag with the class documentFirstHeading.

Status messages

Plone will render status messages in the #global_statusmessage element. We want to bring these messages across to the theme. For this, we add another placeholder into our theme template:

<div class="row">
    <div id="global_statusmessage"></div>
    <div id="above-content"></div>
</div>

and we already have this rule to bring the messages across:

<!-- Alert message -->
<replace css:theme-children="#global_statusmessage" css:content-children="#global_statusmessage" />

To test that, just edit the front page. You should see a confirmation message from Plone.

Main content area 1

To make the Plone content area flexible and containing the correct bootstrap grid classes, we use an inline XSL snippet. This is already in our rules.xml, but needs some customization for our theme:

<!-- Central column -->
<replace css:theme="#content-container" method="raw">

  <xsl:variable name="central">
    <xsl:if test="//aside[@id='portal-column-one'] and //aside[@id='portal-column-two']">col-xs-12 col-sm-6</xsl:if>
    <xsl:if test="//aside[@id='portal-column-two'] and not(//aside[@id='portal-column-one'])">col-xs-12 col-sm-9</xsl:if>
    <xsl:if test="//aside[@id='portal-column-one'] and not(//aside[@id='portal-column-two'])">col-xs-12 col-sm-9</xsl:if>
    <xsl:if test="not(//aside[@id='portal-column-one']) and not(//aside[@id='portal-column-two'])">col-xs-12 col-sm-12</xsl:if>
  </xsl:variable>

  <div class="{$central}">
    <!-- <p class="pull-right visible-xs">
      <button type="button" class="btn btn-primary btn-xs" data-toggle="offcanvas">Toggle nav</button>
    </p> -->
    <div class="row">
      <div class="box">
        <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12">
          <xsl:apply-templates css:select="#content" />
        </div>
      </div>
    </div>
    <footer class="row">
      <div class="box">
        <div class="col-xs-12 col-sm-12">
          <xsl:copy-of css:select="#viewlet-below-content" />
        </div>
      </div>
    </footer>
  </div>
</replace>

This will add the right grid classes to the content columns depending on one-column-, two-column- or three-column-layout. We need to wrap these elements in a div with the class box.

Left and right columns

We have already added the column1-container and column2-container ids to our template. The following rules will incorporate the left and the right columns from Plone into the theme, and also change their markup to be an aside instead of a normal div. That is the reason to use inline XSL here, but we already have it in our rules:

<!-- Left column -->
<rules css:if-content="#portal-column-one">
  <replace css:theme="#column1-container">
      <div id="left-sidebar" class="col-xs-6 col-sm-3 sidebar-offcanvas">
        <aside id="portal-column-one">
           <xsl:copy-of css:select="#portal-column-one > *" />
        </aside>
      </div>
  </replace>
</rules>

<!-- Right column -->
<rules css:if-content="#portal-column-two">
  <replace css:theme="#column2-container">
      <div id="right-sidebar" class="col-xs-6 col-sm-3 sidebar-offcanvas" role="complementary">
        <aside id="portal-column-two">
           <xsl:copy-of css:select="#portal-column-two > *" />
        </aside>
      </div>
  </replace>
</rules>

So nothing more to do here.

Understanding and using the Grunt build system

We already have a Gruntfile.js in the top level directory of our theme package:

module.exports = function (grunt) {
    'use strict';
    grunt.initConfig({
        pkg: grunt.file.readJSON('package.json'),
        // we could just concatenate everything, really
        // but we like to have it the complex way.
        // also, in this way we do not have to worry
        // about putting files in the correct order
        // (the dependency tree is walked by r.js)
        less: {
            dist: {
                options: {
                    paths: [],
                    strictMath: false,
                    sourceMap: true,
                    outputSourceFiles: true,
                    sourceMapURL: '++theme++tango/less/theme-compiled.css.map',
                    sourceMapFilename: 'less/theme-compiled.css.map',
                    modifyVars: {
                        "isPlone": "false"
                    }
                },
                files: {
                    'less/theme-compiled.css': 'less/theme.local.less',
                }
            }
        },
        postcss: {
            options: {
                map: true,
                processors: [
                    require('autoprefixer')({
                        browsers: ['last 2 versions']
                    })
                ]
            },
            dist: {
                src: 'less/*.css'
            }
        },
        watch: {
            scripts: {
                files: [
                    'less/*.less',
                    'barceloneta/less/*.less'
                ],
                tasks: ['less', 'postcss']
            }
        },
        browserSync: {
            html: {
                bsFiles: {
                    src : [
                      'less/*.less',
                      'barceloneta/less/*.less'
                    ]
                },
                options: {
                    watchTask: true,
                    debugInfo: true,
                    online: true,
                    server: {
                        baseDir: "."
                    },
                }
            },
            plone: {
                bsFiles: {
                    src : [
                      'less/*.less',
                      'barceloneta/less/*.less'
                    ]
                },
                options: {
                    watchTask: true,
                    debugInfo: true,
                    proxy: "localhost:8080",
                    reloadDelay: 3000,
                    // reloadDebounce: 2000,
                    online: true
                }
            }
        }
    });

    // grunt.loadTasks('tasks');
    grunt.loadNpmTasks('grunt-browser-sync');
    grunt.loadNpmTasks('grunt-contrib-watch');
    grunt.loadNpmTasks('grunt-contrib-less');
    grunt.loadNpmTasks('grunt-postcss');

    // CWD to theme folder
    grunt.file.setBase('./src/plonetheme/tango/theme');

    grunt.registerTask('compile', ['less', 'postcss']);
    grunt.registerTask('default', ['compile']);
    grunt.registerTask('bsync', ["browserSync:html", "watch"]);
    grunt.registerTask('plone-bsync', ["browserSync:plone", "watch"]);
};

At the end, we can see some registered Grunt tasks. We can use these tasks to control what happens when we run Grunt.

By default Grunt will just run the compile task, which means the less files are getting compiled and the postcss task is run:

$ grunt
Running "less:dist" (less) task
>> 1 stylesheet created.
>> 1 sourcemap created.

Running "postcss:dist" (postcss) task
>> 1 processed stylesheet created.

Done, without errors.

If we want grunt to watch for changes in our less files and let them compile it automatically after every change, we can run grunt watch, and it will run the compile task after every change of a LESS file:

$ grunt watch
Running "watch" task
Waiting...

If some LESS file has changed, you will see something like this:

$ grunt watch
Running "watch" task
Waiting...
>> File "less/custom.less" changed.
Running "less:dist" (less) task
>> 1 stylesheet created.
>> 1 sourcemap created.

Running "postcss:dist" (postcss) task
>> 1 processed stylesheet created.

Done, without errors.
Completed in 2.300s at Mon Oct 10 2016 20:05:27 GMT+0200 (CEST) - Waiting...

Done, without errors.

They are also other useful tasks like plone-bsync, which we can use to also update the Browser after changes.

$ grunt plone-bsync
Running "browserSync:plone" (browserSync) task
[BS] Proxying: http://localhost:8081
[BS] Access URLs:
 --------------------------------------
       Local: http://localhost:3000
    External: http://192.168.2.149:3000
 --------------------------------------
          UI: http://localhost:3001
 UI External: http://192.168.2.149:3001
 --------------------------------------
[BS] Watching files...

Running "watch" task
Waiting...

You will now see an open browser window, which is automatically reloaded any time a LESS file has changed and the CSS was recompiled.

Note

If you use other ports or IP’s for your Plone backend, you have to set up the proxy in the Gruntfile.js to the Plone backend address:port.

Theme manifest.xml

Now let’s have a look at our theme’s manifest.cfg which declares development-css, production-css and optionally tinymce-content-css, like this:

[theme]
title = Plone Theme: Tango
description = A Diazo based Plone theme
doctype = <!DOCTYPE html>
rules = /++theme++tango/rules.xml
prefix = /++theme++tango
enabled-bundles =
disabled-bundles =

development-css = /++theme++tango/less/theme.less
production-css = /++theme++tango/less/theme-compiled.css
tinymce-content-css = /++theme++tango/less/theme-compiled.css

# development-js = /++theme++tango/js/theme.js
# production-js = /++theme++tango/js/theme-compiled.js

[theme:overrides]
directory = template-overrides

[theme:parameters]
# portal_url = python: portal.absolute_url()

The development-css file is used when Plone is running in development mode, otherwise the file under production-css will be used.

The last one tinymce-content-css tells Plone to load that particular CSS file inside TinyMCE, wherever a TinyMCE rich text field is displayed.

Note

After making manifest changes, we need to deactivate/activate the theme for them to take effect. Just go to /@@theming-controlpanel and do it.

Final CSS customization

To make our theme look nicer, we add some CSS as follows to our custom.less file:

/* Custom LESS file that is included from the theme.less file */

.brand-name{
    margin-top: 0.5em;
}

.documentDescription{
    margin-top: 1em;
}

.clearFix{
    clear: both;
}

#left-sidebar {
    padding-left: 0;
}

#right-sidebar {
    padding-right: 0;
}

#content {
    label, .label {
        color: #333;
        font-size: 100%;
    }
}

.pat-autotoc.autotabs, .autotabs {
    border-width: 0;
}

.portal-column-one .portlet,
.portal-column-two .portlet {
    .box;
}

footer .portletActions{
}

footer {
    .portlet {
        padding: 1em 0;
        margin-bottom: 0;
        border: 0;
        background: transparent;
        .portletContent{
            border: 0;
            background: transparent;
            ul {
                padding-left: 0;
                list-style-type: none;
                .portletItem {
                    display: inline-block;
                    &:not(:last-child){
                        padding-right: 0.5em;
                        margin-right: 0.5em;
                        border-right: 1px solid;
                    }
                    &:hover{
                        background-color: transparent;
                    }
                    a{
                        color: #000;
                        padding: 0;
                        text-decoration: none;
                        &:hover{
                            background-color: transparent;
                        }
                        &::before{
                            content: none;
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}
Install external CSS and JavaScript with npm and use them in your theme

As our theme is based on Bootstrap, we want to install Bootstrap with npm to have more flexibility, for example to use the LESS file of Bootstrap. To do that, we use npm, which you should already have globally installed on your system.

Note

The following steps are already included in bobtemplates.plone template, they are here only for documentation reasons, to show how to install and use external packages like Bootstrap.

To install Bootstrap with npm run the following command inside the theme folder:

$ npm install bootstrap --save

The --save option will add the package to package.json in the theme folder for us. Now, we can install all dependencies on any other system by running the following command from inside of our theme folder:

$ npm install

Now that we have installed bootstrap using npm, we have all bootstrap components available in the subfolder called node_modules:

$ tree node_modules/bootstrap/
node_modules/bootstrap/
├── CHANGELOG.md
├── dist
│   ├── css
│   │   ├── bootstrap.css
│   │   ├── bootstrap.css.map
│   │   ├── bootstrap.min.css
│   │   ├── bootstrap-theme.css
│   │   ├── bootstrap-theme.css.map
│   │   └── bootstrap-theme.min.css
│   ├── fonts
│   │   ├── glyphicons-halflings-regular.eot
│   │   ├── glyphicons-halflings-regular.svg
│   │   ├── glyphicons-halflings-regular.ttf
│   │   ├── glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff
│   │   └── glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff2
│   └── js
│       ├── bootstrap.js
│       ├── bootstrap.min.js
│       └── npm.js
├── fonts
│   ├── glyphicons-halflings-regular.eot
│   ├── glyphicons-halflings-regular.svg
│   ├── glyphicons-halflings-regular.ttf
│   ├── glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff
│   └── glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff2
├── grunt
│   ├── bs-commonjs-generator.js
│   ├── bs-glyphicons-data-generator.js
│   ├── bs-lessdoc-parser.js
│   ├── bs-raw-files-generator.js
│   ├── configBridge.json
│   └── sauce_browsers.yml
├── Gruntfile.js
├── js
│   ├── affix.js
│   ├── alert.js
│   ├── button.js
│   ├── carousel.js
│   ├── collapse.js
│   ├── dropdown.js
│   ├── modal.js
│   ├── popover.js
│   ├── scrollspy.js
│   ├── tab.js
│   ├── tooltip.js
│   └── transition.js
├── less
│   ├── alerts.less
│   ├── badges.less
│   ├── bootstrap.less
│   ├── breadcrumbs.less
│   ├── button-groups.less
│   ├── buttons.less
│   ├── carousel.less
│   ├── close.less
│   ├── code.less
│   ├── component-animations.less
│   ├── dropdowns.less
│   ├── forms.less
│   ├── glyphicons.less
│   ├── grid.less
│   ├── input-groups.less
│   ├── jumbotron.less
│   ├── labels.less
│   ├── list-group.less
│   ├── media.less
│   ├── mixins
│   │   ├── alerts.less
│   │   ├── background-variant.less
│   │   ├── border-radius.less
│   │   ├── buttons.less
│   │   ├── center-block.less
│   │   ├── clearfix.less
│   │   ├── forms.less
│   │   ├── gradients.less
│   │   ├── grid-framework.less
│   │   ├── grid.less
│   │   ├── hide-text.less
│   │   ├── image.less
│   │   ├── labels.less
│   │   ├── list-group.less
│   │   ├── nav-divider.less
│   │   ├── nav-vertical-align.less
│   │   ├── opacity.less
│   │   ├── pagination.less
│   │   ├── panels.less
│   │   ├── progress-bar.less
│   │   ├── reset-filter.less
│   │   ├── reset-text.less
│   │   ├── resize.less
│   │   ├── responsive-visibility.less
│   │   ├── size.less
│   │   ├── tab-focus.less
│   │   ├── table-row.less
│   │   ├── text-emphasis.less
│   │   ├── text-overflow.less
│   │   └── vendor-prefixes.less
│   ├── mixins.less
│   ├── modals.less
│   ├── navbar.less
│   ├── navs.less
│   ├── normalize.less
│   ├── pager.less
│   ├── pagination.less
│   ├── panels.less
│   ├── popovers.less
│   ├── print.less
│   ├── progress-bars.less
│   ├── responsive-embed.less
│   ├── responsive-utilities.less
│   ├── scaffolding.less
│   ├── tables.less
│   ├── theme.less
│   ├── thumbnails.less
│   ├── tooltip.less
│   ├── type.less
│   ├── utilities.less
│   ├── variables.less
│   └── wells.less
├── LICENSE
├── package.json
└── README.md

To include the needed “carousel” part and some other bootstrap components which our downloaded theme uses, we change our theme.less to look like this:

/* theme.less file that will be compiled */

/* ### PLONE IMPORTS ### */

@barceloneta_path: "barceloneta/less";

/* Core variables and mixins */
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/fonts.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/variables.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.prefixes.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.tabfocus.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.images.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.forms.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.borderradius.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.buttons.plone.less";
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.clearfix.plone.less";
//    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.gridframework.plone.less"; //grid Bootstrap
    @import "@{barceloneta_path}/mixin.grid.plone.less"; //grid Bootstrap

@import "@{barceloneta_path}/normalize.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/print.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/code.plone.less";

/* Core CSS */
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/grid.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/scaffolding.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/type.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/tables.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/forms.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/buttons.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/states.plone.less";

/* Components */
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/breadcrumbs.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/pagination.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/formtabbing.plone.less"; //pattern
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/views.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/thumbs.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/alerts.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/portlets.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/controlpanels.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/tags.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/contents.plone.less";

/* Patterns */
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/accessibility.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/toc.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/dropzone.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/modal.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/pickadate.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/sortable.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/tablesorter.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/tooltip.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/tree.plone.less";

/* Structure */
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/header.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/sitenav.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/main.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/footer.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/loginform.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/sitemap.plone.less";

/* Products */
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/event.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/image.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/behaviors.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/discussion.plone.less";
@import "@{barceloneta_path}/search.plone.less";

// ### END OF PLONE IMPORTS ###

// ### UTILS ###

// import bootstrap files:
@bootstrap_path: "node_modules/bootstrap/less";

@import "@{bootstrap_path}/variables.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/mixins.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/utilities.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/grid.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/type.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/forms.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/navs.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/navbar.less";
@import "@{bootstrap_path}/carousel.less";

// END OF UTILS

// include theme css as less
@import (less) "../css/business-casual.css";

// include our custom css/less
@import "custom.less";

Here you can see how we include the resources like @import "@{bootstrap_path}/carousel.less"; in our LESS file.

Also take notice of the definition:

@bootstrap_path: "node_modules/bootstrap/less";

here we define the bootstrap path, so that we can use it in all bootstrap includes.

Note

Don’t forget to run grunt compile after you changed the LESS files or use grunt watch to do this automatically after every change!

More Diazo and plone.app.theming details

For more details how to build a Diazo based theme, look at http://docs.diazo.org/en/latest/ and http://docs.plone.org/external/plone.app.theming/docs/index.html.