## 2.1. Volto: an overview¶

One of the basic aspects of Volto is that it provides Server-Side Rendering (SSR): when you first load a Volto page you'll get HTML code identical in its markup to the React-rendered output of that page. The HTML page will also load a bunch of JS files which, when loaded, finally bring Volto to run as a Single Page Application (SPA) in the browser.

Another basic fact, Volto is a React app that is transpiled from JSX and ECMAScript 6 using Babel, then bundled, chunked, and minified by Webpack.

For this basic infrastructure setup Volto relies on the Razzle library, which provides an extensible Webpack SSR-enabled setup with a convenient split of server/client entry points and dual server/client Hot-Module-Reload (HMR).

The first Webpack entry point will be used as the Volto server and uses Express web framework for that. It runs the Volto React code and components then sends them to the browser as a normal HTML page. It also proxies some Plone resources, such as files and images. Once the HTML page is loaded by the browser, all communication is done as JSON API messages.

To generate the second entry point, the client-only bundle, Webpack will need to know how to find, load, and potentially mutate (compress, transpile, minify, etc.) the files that represent the code and resources of Volto, the Volto project, and Volto add-ons. The base is provided by Razzle, with instructions for Webpack to transpile .js and .jsx files with Babel, load .less files, CSS, images, and SVG files. For any other file type (for example, .scss, .ts, etc.) you'll have to enhance the Razzle configuration with the appropriate Webpack loader.

Check if there's already a Razzle plugin. For example .scss support can be added by adding scss to the razzle.config.js plugins list.

To summarize: Volto runs as a Single Page Application packaged by Webpack, which uses loaders such as Babel (for ES6 js/jsx files) or a less-loader for .less files.

## 2.2. Bootstrap a new Volto project¶

Although it's possible to run Volto with npm as the Node package manager, the community has settled, for now, for the Yarn Classic (v1.x) package manager. Yarn is used as an installer, to run scripts but also as a "virtual environment", by using its workspaces feature. Typically you'll start Volto applications with yarn start or yarn test. You can also integrate the mrs-developer library, and run yarn missdev to do tasks similar to mr.developer in Buildout projects. If you're not sure what these or any other yarn commands do, it's a good idea to examine your project's package.json file, in the scripts section, where you'll usually find those scripting aliases defined.

To bootstrap a new Volto project, you can use a scaffolding tool based on Yeoman named @plone/generator-volto. First, install it as a global tool (use NVM if you're being asked for sudo access):

npm install -g yo
npm install -g @plone/generator-volto


Then you can bootstrap the project with:

yo @plone/volto volto-tutorial-project


The yo-based generator partially integrates add-ons (it can generate a package.json with add-ons and workspaces already specified). When prompted to add add-ons, choose false.

Now you can start your newly created Volto project:

cd volto-tutorial-project
yarn start


Let's start creating an add-on. We'll create a new scoped package: @plone-collective/datatable-tutorial. Inside your Volto project, bootstrap the add-on by running (in the Volto project root):

yo @plone/volto:addon


Note: the namespace @plone-collective (or any other) is not required and is optional. We're using namespaces to group add-ons under a common "group". Unfortunately, the NPM @collective scope is not available to the Plone community.

Use @plone-collective/volto-datatable-tutorial as the package name. After the scaffolding of the add-on completes, you can check the created files in src/addons/volto-datatable-tutorial.

Back to the project, you can edit jsconfig.json and add your add-on:

{
"compilerOptions": {
"baseUrl": "src",
"paths": {
"@plone-collective/volto-datatable-tutorial": [
]
}
}
}


Note

The jsconfig.json file is needed by Volto to identify development packages. You are not strictly limited to Volto add-ons in its use, you could, for example, use this to make it easier to debug third-party JavaScript packages that are shipped transpiled.

### 2.3.1. (Optional) Use mrs-developer to sync add-on to GitHub¶

You can also immediately push the package to GitHub, then use [mrs-developer] to manage the package and jsconfig.json changes.

Install mrs-developer as a development dependency by running:

yarn add -W -D mrs-developer


Create a mrs.developer.json with the following content (adjust it according to your names and repository location):

 {
"volto-datatable-tutorial": {
"url": "https://github.com/collective/datatable-tutorial.git",
"path": "src",
"package": "@plone-collective/volto-datatable-tutorial",
"branch": "main"
}
}


Then run yarn develop, which will bring the package in src/addons and adjust jsconfig.json.

The Volto project is itself a JavaScript package, and we want to "plug" here other JavaScript packages that we will develop. The Volto project itself becomes a monorepo, with the Volto project being the "workspace root" and each add-on needs to be a "workspace", so that yarn knows that it should include that add-on location as a package and install its dependencies.

Change the Volto project's package.json to include something like:

{
"private": "true",
"workspaces": [
],
}


Note

Don't be scared by that "private": "true" in the Volto project package.json. It's only needed to make sure you can't accidentally publish the package to NPM.

To be able to add dependencies to the add-on, you need to add them via the workspaces machinery by running something like (at the Volto project root):

yarn workspaces info


Note

There are several other add-on templates, such as voltocli or eea/volto-addon-template. You could very well decide not to use any of them, and instead bootstrap a new add-on by running:

mkdir -p src/addons/datatable-tutorial
npm init


Remember, an add-on is just a JavaScript package that exports a configuration loader. Just make sure to point the main in package.json to src/index.js.

To tell Volto about our new add-on, add it to the addons key of the Volto project package.json:

// ...
// ...


## 2.4. Add-ons - first look¶

Although still in their infancy, 2020 was the year of the Volto add-ons. The Beethoven Sprint was a key moment in arriving at a consensus on how to load the add-ons and what capabilities they should have. With a common understanding of what exactly is an add-on, many new add-ons were published and can now be integrated with unmodified Volto projects.

The collective/awesome-volto repo tracks most of them (submit PRs if anything is missing!).

An add-on can be almost anything that a Volto project can be. They can:

• provide additional views and blocks

• override or extend Volto's builtin views, blocks, and settings

• register custom routes

• provide custom Redux actions and reducers

• register custom Express middleware for Volto's server process

• tweak Volto's webpack configuration, load custom Razzle, and Webpack plugins

• even provide a custom theme, just like a regular Volto project does.

As for implementation, Volto add-ons are just plain JavaScript packages with an additional feature: they provide helper functions that mutate Volto's configuration registry. These are the "add-on configuration loaders".

Note

To make things easy, add-ons should be distributed as source, non-transpiled code. Volto's Webpack setup integrates all development loaders (Babel transpiling, less loading, and so on) if they are identified as Volto add-ons.

Their main entry in package.json should point to src/index.js, which should be an ES6 module with a default export. Here is the default add-on configuration loader:

export default (config) => {
return config
};


Any additional named export from the main script can be used as an add-on optional configuration loader.

The config object that is passed is the Volto configuration registry, the singleton module referenced throughout Volto and Volto projects, by importing @plone/volto/registry. The add-on can mutate the properties of the config, such as settings, blocks, views, widgets, or its dedicated addonRoutes and addonReducers.

Note: the add-on configuration loading mechanism is inspired by Razzle, which uses a similar "get the config, return the config" pass-through mechanism for its plugins.

The resolution order is: Volto declares the initial configuration, it applies the add-on configuration and then the project configuration is loaded last, enabling the project to override any configuration.

So: Volto → add-ons → project.

To load an add-on, the project needs to specify the add-on in the addons key of project.json. Optional configuration loaders are specified as a comma-separated list after the : colon symbol.

// ...
"@eeacms/volto-tabs-block",
]
// ...


Notice that the add-ons should be named by their package name, plus any additional optional configuration loaders that are exported by the add-on's src/index.js.

## 2.5. Develop a basic block¶

Now that the "infrastructure" is all set, we have our Volto project with the add-on loaded, we can finally start developing for Volto!

### 2.5.1. Create a new block¶

• Create src/DataTable/DataTableView.jsx

import React from 'react';

const DataTableView = (props) => {
return <div>Table here...</div>;
};

export default DataTableView;

• Create src/DataTable/DataTableEdit.jsx

import React from 'react';
import DataTableView from './DataTableView';

const DataTableEdit = (props) => {
return (
<div>
<DataTableView {...props} />
</div>
);
};

export default DataTableEdit;


We're reusing the block view component referenced from the edit component, to speed things up.

Note

We will be using function components here. There is no rule in Volto that requires choosing between class components or function components. Pick whichever feels better. Volto itself uses both styles. Although the function components are a newer API, and the use of hooks can make things more compact and reusable, they can also become hard to track, especially when multiple useEffect piles up in the same component. Don't feel that you have to stick to one style only. Choose whichever feels right for the task.

• Create src/DataTable/index.js. This step is optional, but it makes imports nicer across the project. In case you decide on omitting this file, make sure to adjust your code and imports accordingly.

export DataTableView from './DataTableView';
export DataTableEdit from './DataTableEdit';

• Register the block in src/addons/datatable-tutorial/src/index.js

import tableSVG from '@plone/volto/icons/table.svg';

import { DataTableView, DataTableEdit } from './DataTable';

export default (config) => {
config.blocks.blocksConfig.dataTable = {
id: 'dataTable',
title: 'Data Table',
icon: tableSVG,
group: 'common',
view: DataTableView,
edit: DataTableEdit,
restricted: false,
mostUsed: true,
sidebarTab: 1,
security: {
view: [],
},
};
return config;
};


Instantiate the new block in a Volto page then save the page. This is a small development optimization. When changing code while developing, the HMR will kick in and replace the content on the edit page with the one loaded initially from the server. If you haven't saved the block yet, you'll need to recreate it again.

### 2.5.2. Improve the block edit¶

Now for the simplest block sidebar, edit src/addons/datatable-tutorial/src/DataTableEdit.jsx:

import React from 'react';
import { Segment, Form } from 'semantic-ui-react';
import { SidebarPortal, Field } from '@plone/volto/components';
import DataTableView from './DataTableView';

const DataTableEdit = (props) => {
const { selected, onChangeBlock, block, data } = props;
return (
<div>
<SidebarPortal selected={selected}>
<Segment.Group raised>
<h2>Data table</h2>

<Form>
<Field
id="file_path"
widget="object_browser"
title="File"
value={data.file_path || []}
onChange={(id, value) =>
onChangeBlock(block, { ...data, [id]: value })
}
/>
</Form>
</Segment.Group>
</SidebarPortal>

<DataTableView />
</div>
);
};

export default DataTableEdit;


The <Form> component in our case is used only for styling purposes.

Note

We'll need a CSV file to play around while developing this add-on. We have provided one for you to download